Summers are moderate in northern Sweden, but winters are bitterly cold, with snow blanketing the landscape for months. In Malgova, Västerbotten County, Sweden’s lowest ever recorded temperature was 53.0 °C (63.4 °F). In the winter, temperatures as low as -40 degrees Celsius are common in “Norrland.” Temperatures in mid-Sweden and the southern half of the country, on the other hand, are often substantially lower.
Estonia is a very small country located in Northern Europe with a population of just over a million people. Despite having a significantly warmer climate than some of the other countries on this list, the country’s irregular rainfall can cause temperatures to dip at any time of year. The country’s sub-zero temperatures in the winter are caused by monsoon winds, which make the region exceedingly cold, making the country perpetually cold. February is the coldest month of the year, with an average temperature of -5.7°C (21.7°F). -43.5°C (-46.3°F) is the lowest temperature ever measured.
Given that Russia’s total coldness is mostly due to the environment in Siberia’s predominantly Asian territory, it’s perhaps more correct to regard Norway as Europe’s coldest country. However, there isn’t much of a difference between the Scandinavian countries, with Sweden, Finland, and Iceland all placing in the top ten globally, with average temperatures barely above freezing. Norway differs from the top three in that it is mostly a coastal nation, with the bulk of its counties bordering the sea. This should, in theory, warm things up, but with so much of Norway located above the Arctic Circle, temperatures drop precipitously during the winter months, with record lows of -51°C recorded in the settlement of Karasjok around the turn of the century.
Finland, one of the world’s northernmost countries, has the European Union’s lowest population density, owing to the terrible weather conditions that prevail, particularly in the winter. Finland is located in the boreal zone, which has cold winters and hot summers due to its geographic location. Winter lasts for 100 days in most of Finland, however in Lapland, winter lasts for 200 days, with constant snow cover from mid-October to early May. On severely cold days, temperatures in Lapland can dip as low as -45°C (-49°F), making Finland one of the world’s coldest countries. The northernmost area of Finland does not see the sunrise for as long as 51 days during the winter, while the sun does not set for almost 73 days during the summer.
Unlike Greenland, Iceland is a suitable moniker for this Nordic island nation with a considerable snow and ice cover. Surprisingly, Iceland does not get as hard a winter as some of the other countries on the same latitude. This is due to the country’s location along the North Atlantic Current, which makes parts of the region more temperate.. The temperature in Iceland’s Highlands averages around -10°C (14°F) in the winter, but it can reach -30° C (-22°F) in the north. In the winter, Iceland is one of the greatest sites to see the northern lights.
Because three-quarters of Greenland is perpetually encased in an ice sheet, the island’s name is more white than green. The capital, Nuuk, has a warmer average daily temperature than the rest of the country, ranging from -8° C (18° F) in February to 7° C (45° F) in July. This is most likely why, despite having one of the world’s longest winters, it is one of the most populated places in the region. However, during the winter, certain parts of Greenland experience temperatures as low as -50° C (-58°F). -65° C (-85° F) is the coldest temperature ever recorded at the island’s core.
Mongolia is the only other country with a year-round average temperature below zero. Mongolia, which is sandwiched between Russia and China, is the world’s 18th largest country by area, but it only has a population of just over 3 million inhabitants who must suffer its harsh climate, which features sweltering summers and very frigid winters. Siberian winds, which bring bitterly cold air in from the north, are largely to blame for those bitterly cold winters. The cold air is usually trapped in Mongolia’s many river valleys and low basins, leading to long winters until Spring arrives. But it’s not all terrible news. Mongolia is also known as the “Land of the Eternal Blue Sky” since it is sunny most of the time.
Despite its tiny size, Kyrgyzstan has a very diverse climate, thanks to its mountainous geography. Summers in the Fergana Valley in the southwest of the country are extremely hot, with daytime temperatures reaching 40°C. During the winter months, however, temperatures drop considerably at night and across the country, with mountain peaks and valleys frequently recording lows of below -30°C.
It’s no surprise that Canada is the world’s coldest country, with some of the world’s coldest cities and a large region of land that freezes over for half of the year. In certain northern parts of Canada, snow can last for a full year, and temperatures can plunge below 40 degrees Celsius away from the beaches, with powerful wind chills compounding the problem. Global warming has been particularly severe in the Arctic, putting the future of portions of Northern Canada that are primarily made up of ice and permafrost at jeopardy. Temperatures in Canada have risen over 2°C as a result of this since the middle of the twentieth century, according to estimates.
In reality, Canada and Russia are neck-and-neck for the dubious honour of being the world’s coldest country. Given that they are also the world’s two largest countries in terms of size, it’s quite difficult to get an accurate average temperature reading for either of them. The vast province of Siberia, which encompasses most of Northern Asia, drags down Russia’s average. Siberia, despite being sparsely populated, spans over 77 percent of Russia’s total land area and is home to some of the country’s most picturesque regions. Even Novosibirsk, the largest Siberian city, experiences typical winter temperatures of roughly -20°C, and it gets much, much colder elsewhere.