Top 10 Shocking Facts about Mesopotamian civilization

mesopotamian civilization

This post is about Facts about Ancient Mesopotamia.
But, before talking about this civilization’s facts, let’s see its origins.
The word Mesopotamia originates from meso, implying middle, old Greek root phrases; and river meaning potamos.
It thus translates to ‘(land) in the middle of rivers’
Mesopotamia relates widely to the territories between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. 
The region comprises most of the modern Iraq, Kuwait & Syria.
It was a homeland of many of the oldest significant civilizations in the world, including Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians, and Babylonians but we can also regard it as one of the first civilization in the world.
These are Top 10 Mesopotamia facts from ancient research:

10. Sumer was the first urban civilization in history

By 3000 BC, the Sumerian people had controlled Mesopotamia and played an important part in Mesopotamia history. 
There were several decentralized city-states in Sumer, including Eridu, Nippur, Lagash, Uruk, Kish, and Ur. 
Sumer’s most prominent city was Uruk, about 30 km eastward of Iraq’s modern Samawah town. 
It served a major position in urbanization and state formation in Mesopotamia during the so-called Uruk period & was among the first city in the region. 
The development of Uruk rendered it the biggest settlement in Mesopotamia, both in population and area. 
At its height, it had between 40,000 and 80,000 inhabitants living in 6 sq. km of the enclosed region around 2900 BC. 
The development of Uruk made it the biggest settlement in Mesopotamia, both in population and area. 

09. First Biggest Empire in the ancient world

Eannatum, a ruler of the Sumerian town of Lagash, started a military campaign to annex the different city-states in the 25th century BC. 
Ultimately, he conquered all Sumer and spread his impact beyond his borders. 
Eannatum’s empire is one of history’s first verifiable kingdoms. 
Sargon of Akkad another Mesopotamian king, established The Akkadian Empire, also recognized as Sargon the Great, and conquered Sumer around 2270 BC. 
We can regard him as Mesopotamia’s first brilliant emperor and evidence support the facts. 
He captured all southern Mesopotamia and areas of Syria, Anatolia, and Elam (west Iran). 
The Sargon-built empire was up to that stage the largest ancient empire in recorded history.
During Sargon’s regime, there were countless revolts, and its a fact that he had the world’s first skilled standing army to safeguard his empire from rebellious citizens.
After his death, Mesopotamian rulers considered him as a model for about two millennia.

08. Assyria was the first superpower nation in the world

Assyria is named after its first capital Assur on a plateau above the Tigris River in ancient Mesopotamian civilization. 
Geography has placed Assyria in an exposed position with most sides free to loot. 
Because of these neighboring nations, including the armies of Mitanni, Hittite, and Babylon constantly were a threat.
These forces defeated the Assyrians at different phases in their past and had to battle for their independence. 
This developed a reactionary effect that resulted in the development of an efficient, well-organized and powerful army,
A structure capable of coping with its neighbors’ continual violence, conflicts, and attacks.
This made the Assyrian army powerful, and they triumphed over most of-of the strong Mesopotamian states by the 8th century BC to become one of the first superpowers of the ancient world.

07. King Tiglath-Pileser 3 is regarded as a military genius

The Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III ruled from 745 BC to 727 BC. Considered to be one of the strongest rulers in Mesopotamian civilization.
He carried out a sequence of comprehensive changes to reorganize the military and restructure the government’s bureaucracy. 
He also developed Assyria’s first professional standing army and up to that moment made it the most efficient military power in history.
It’s also considered him as one of the most successful military commanders in the world’s history as he conquered many neighboring territories.
At his death, Assyria was the biggest kingdom in the ancient world.
Tiglath-Pileser III’s brother Sargon II captured the crown in 722 BC and governed Assyria until 705 BC. 
The Assyrian Empire achieved its highest heights under Sargon II. 

06. Invention of wheel

The wheel was first created as a potter’s wheel and has occurred around 3500 BC, contrary to popular belief.
Although the wheel first existed in ancient Mesopotamia, archaeologists found the earliest wheel called the Ljubljana Marshes Wheel in 2002 in Ljubljana, Slovenia’s capital, and dates back 5,150 years.
Ancient humans used the wheel as a luxurious transport for the rich and for agriculture, ceramic manufacturing, and processing. 
It was bases the chariot technology and other significant historical inventions.
The chariot was the first means of private transport and then; they used in wars, sports and public use for years. 
They made the oldest chariot design of a light wood with a bentwood rim.
The first chariot appeared in Mesopotamia around 3200 BC and then after used by almost every civilization after, they used chariots for kings and wealthy private commute.

05. World's First Accountants Counted on Cuneiform

People recorded information about their agricultural goods—including domestic animals and plants in the form of small clay tokens. 
Scholars believe that the written form of language that we use to pass this information along today evolved out of this simple accounting technique.
On cave ceilings, upper Paleolithic individuals left tally marks and cut hash marks on portable sticks. 
But, Clay tokens provided more data, including what commodity they counted, a significant leap forward in storing and retrieving information. 
Urban towns flourished during the Uruk era in Mesopotamia [4000–3000 BC] and accounting administrative requirements increased. 
In Mesopotamian culture, production of secondary commodities such as wool, clothing, metals, honey, bread, oil, alcoholic beverages, rope, furniture, jewelry, tools, perfume required accounting, and the number of tokens used increased in 3300 BCE. 
During the Late Uruk era [3500–3100 BCE], accountants started to maintain tokens inline globular clay envelopes called bullae.
Bullae are hollow clay balls about 5–9 cm (2–4 inches) in diameter: they kept tokens inside the box and the opening later sealed. 
About 150 of these clay envelopes are recovered from excavation sites of Mesopotamian civilization. 

04. Concept of Urbanization

Mesopotamians developed the concept of urbanization for the first time. 
Human beings began to live in a particular location instead of scavenging or hunting for the first time in history.
Agriculture’s creation enabled feeding more individuals and livestock living in one place. 
People taught to trade, and the notion of taxes evolved with it.
Mesopotamia emerged as one of the world’s first sun-dried brick-built towns. 
Urbanization in Mesopotamia began in the Uruk era (4300–3100 BC) and massive mud-brick houses built around 3200 BC was the biggest colony ever to be built in human culture. 
Huge fortifications constructed by King Gilgamesh surrounded the town.

03. It is regarded as in Mesopotamia writing was invented

The cuneiform writing system is also not an alphabet, and it doesn’t have letters.
Instead, it used between 600 and 1,000 characters to write words or syllables which was one of the earliest forms of writings used in ancient Mesopotamia.
Sumerian and Akkadian are the two primary scripts published in Cuneiform, although more than we record a handful of others.
This implies that we could use it to write Chinese, Hungarian or English pretty well today.
The first stage used basic pictures that were also used to record syllables soon.
Reading the letters of other people, particularly when they are 4,000 years old and written in such an attractive and sensitive format, is absolutely fascinating.

02. Marriage,Sex & Love

Marriage was of essential significance in ancient Mesopotamia culture because it guaranteed the continuity of the bloodline and offered social balance.
Human relations in ancient Mesopotamia were as difficult and complex as those today, and the emotion of affection was a component of that nature.
There are poems, like of Akkadian composition around 1750 BCE, which portrays two couples arguing that the female believes
that the boy has an affair with someone and that he has to convince her she is the only one. 
Ultimately, after poetic discussing the issue, the pair reconciles, and it’s clarified that they will stay comfortably together now.
While romantic love played a role in Mesopotamian weddings, marriage was a legal contract between the father of the bride and to be the groom.
More commonly, it was between two families according to the customs and standards of Mesopotamian culture. 
(Its called dowry; Fathers gave the bride to the groom’s family who paid the highest price to them.)
To be considered legal, the wedding celebration had to include a feast. 
For the pair to be legally married, the marriage procedure had five phases to be noted: 
1.Engagement / marriage agreement; 
2.Payment of the bride and groom parents to each other (gift and wife price); ceremony/feast; 
3.Bride shifting to the house of her husband/in-laws; 
4.Sexual intercourse between the bride and the pair expected to be a virgin on their wedding night and become pregnant. 
Mesopotamian rituals and practices may seem odd, or even unfair, to a Western modern-day mind.
The ancient world’s humans were no distinct from those who live today. 
Many modern weddings started with a promise, end sadly, while many others struggled initially but last a lifetime.

01. Mesopotamian Cult & Witch-craft

Researchers have encountered at a Kars symposium called “Ani’s Underground Secrets” to explore the underground world of the city listed in old carvings as the place of an old esoteric school in Mesopotamia. 
At its peak, Ani rivaled in size and importance the likes of Constantinople, Baghdad, and Cairo.
Ani had risen to over 100, 000 people by the 11th century in Mesopotamian civilization. 
It would become the battlefield for different contending empires, resulting in its destruction and abandonment.  
Today, hundreds of ancient churches, Zoroastrian temples, and other structures stay spread across the rough and desolate landscape, most of them in ruins. 
It was the beginning of a discovery of water streams, unexplored monk cells, meditation chambers, big hallways, complex tunnels, pits, and corners beneath the remains of Ani’s old Armenian city. 
They found a papyrus fragment in a place in one chamber. In an ancient Armenian language, the document was written in some strange text, 
The first sign that Ani’s hidden world was very old.
Archeologists put together the significance of the strange text after a while.
They learned that the text was a cult message written from one monk to another monk.
Demonology, Black Magic & Cult was some common practice in Mesopotamia. In fact, they considered a popular demonic entity named Pazuzu (also popular in many modern horror movies) the demon king in ancient religions.

Just like the Mesopotamian civilization, there is another ancient civilization called Indus Valley civilization and it is as old as Mesopotamia.
It just fascinates and intrigues me to know about our ancestors yet see how far we have come from them.
If you loved this post and found this very informative you can share this with your friends to let them know about our origins.

Top 10 Best Presidents who made the US Superpower

Top 10 best presidents

This list post is about Top 10 Best Presidents in the World who made the US global superpower.
Leaders are not iconic; they are people like you and me, but with some distinctions. 
We are talking about the most powerful position in that world before and now, President of the United States.
Does it mean that all American presidents are best in the world in terms of presidential rankings? 
Winning an election is not an easy task? isn’t it?
Here, the case is a bit different, winning an election is a different thing and leading a super-power is different.
Of the men who have held the U.S. president’s office, historians agree that there are only a few who are most loved and can be ranked in American history. 
These are the Top 10 best Presidents of America:

10. Andrew Jackson

Top 10 best presidents

Starting from the tenth spot of our best American presidents list,
Is the first populist president of the nation, Andrew Jackson (March 4, 1829-March 4, 1837), known as “Old Hickory.”
As a self-styled man of the people, during the War of 1812 and later against the Seminole Indians in Florida, Jackson gained fame at the Battle of New Orleans.
His first presidential run in 1824 finished in a small loss to John Quincy Adams, but four years later, in a landslide, Jackson won the Presidency.
While in office, Jackson demolished the United States’ Second Bank, putting an end to federal attempts to regulate the economy.
At a staggering odds to be killed, Jackson was the target of the first attempted presidential assassination in US history.
Once, in April 1781 he, along with his brother was arrested by British reason being our future president declined when an officer ordered Jackson to clean his shoes. 
The angry officer drew his sword and slit the left hand of Jackson to the bone and gashed his head, leaving a lasting scar.

09. Harry Truman

presidential rankings

Harry S. Truman (April 12, 1945-January 20, 1953) took office after serving as vice president during the final term of office of Franklin Roosevelt.
Following Roosevelt’s death, Truman directed the U.S. through World War II’s closing months,
Including the choice to use a nuclear bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan.
He became president at one of the most important and difficult times in our America’s history, at the end of World War II. 
He had to create many hostile choices without being kept up-to-date as vice president.
Although controversial today, the history points us that he made smart decisions, and we are happy that at that moment he was in authority.
Under Truman’s leadership, the U.S. introduced the Berlin Airlift to fight the German capital’s Soviet blockade and established the multi-billion-dollar Marshall Plan to restore war-torn Europe.

08. John F. Kennedy aka JFK

best presidents

John Fitzgerald “Jack” Kennedy was 35th President of the United States from January 1961 to his assassination on November 1963, often known as JFK.
Americans and the world often consider him to be the young, talented guy whose career and life on that day of 22nd November 1963 in Dallas tragically ended. 
But for purposes other than that, Kennedy deserves a position on this list, as I may presume many Americans still consider him among the most loved presidents.
By negotiating with Soviet President Khrushchev, he receives significant marks here for his diplomatic management of the Cuban Missile Crisis. 
He also sought to bring an end to discrimination against race, supporting civil rights and racial integration.
He took the U.S. economy out of crisis through his reforms.

07. Thomas Jefferson

top 10 best presidents

Thomas Jefferson (March 4, 1801-March 4, 1809), third President of the United States, also played an important role in America’s birth.
This author of the Declaration of Independence was a scholar, statesman, and a very good leader. 
In 1803, he purchased territory from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleonic France at a bargain cost of just $15 million. 
Increasing the nation’s size in one blow under his leadership, and his brilliant mind shaped our country from its formation days.
This places him in the seventh spot in our top 10 best presidents as he was also one of the founding fathers.
The United States also battled its first foreign war, recognized as the First Barbary War, while Jefferson was in charge and shortly attacked present-day Libya.

06. Dwight D. Eisenhower

top 10 best presidents

The war in Korea stopped during the reign of Dwight Eisenhower (January 20, 1953-January 20, 1961), while the U.S. saw tremendous economic growth.
Perhaps the most important achievement of Eisenhower as president was to keep America out of the war.
As president, he faced issues that could quickly have escalated into conflict if someone else had been in control without such a presence of mind.
Besides, We can attribute him for his financial strategies that mainly contributed to the financial growth of the 1950s. 
Eisenhower issued legislation creating the interstate highway system and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or NASA while in government.
Eisenhower kept a strong anti-communist position in foreign policy in Europe and Asia, increasing the nuclear arsenal of the nation and promoting South Vietnam’s capitalist regime.

05. Ronald Regan

top 10 best presidents
Ronald Reagan was an American movie actor turned politician who worked from 1981 to 1989 as the 40th U.S. president.
He as a person was inspiring, enthusiastic, and charming, but his presidency was much more than that.
His administration developed 16 million new employment opportunities, fueled a 2-decade-length economic boom.
Reagan’s economic policy’s four pillars were to reduce government spending, lower the federal income tax and investment gains tax, lower public regulation, and loosen money supply to decrease inflation.
His best achievement was ending the cold war.
Regan’s administration pushed his Strategic Defense Initiative relentlessly and helped the insurgents, particularly from Nicaragua to Angola, fighting Soviet-backed Communists.
These efforts were critical in the Soviet empire’s ultimate collapse and ended the Cold War finally.
Speaking in historical rankings of presidents personally, he is my favorite leader.
Reagan was the right man at the right time.

04.Theodore Roosevelt

presidential rankings

After the assassination of President McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt (September 14, 1901-March 4, 1909) went to power.
He was the youngest person to hold the presidential position when at 42. 
Roosevelt used his presidentship during his two terms to implement excellent national and foreign policy.
Also, he put in place regulations to curb the power of large corporations such as Standard Oil and the railroads of the nation. 
With the Pure Food and Drug Act, which gave birth to the present Food and Drug Administration, he also enhanced consumer protection and created the first national parks.
Roosevelt followed an aggressive foreign policy, negotiating the beginning of the war between Russia and Japan and creating the Canal of Panama.
Today, we can thank him for promoting child labor laws, women’s rights, an 8-hour working day, and building a new image of masculinity that combined education, bodily strength, and rugged individualism.

03. Franklin D. Roosevelt aka FDR

top 10 presidents

The longest-serving President of the United States was the FDR (March 4, 1933-April 12, 1945). 
Elected during the unfortunate times of the Great Economic Depression, he held the oval office from 1933 to only months before World War II ended in 1945.
During his presidential tenure, he planned to significantly extend the federal government’s function.
Depression-era federal programs such as Social Security, implemented during the government of FDR still exist, offering the most susceptible nation with fundamental economic protection. 
The U.S. also took on a prominent fresh role in global affairs because of the conflict, a stance it still holds.
Because of his economic, diplomatic and defense policies, many consider him one of the best presidents America ever had.

02.Abraham Lincoln

top 10 presidents

If not for Abraham Lincoln (March 4, 1861-April 15, 1865), who presided America during the Civil War, the U.S. might look different today.
Lincoln led the Union through four brutal years of civil war, removed slavery with the Proclamation of Emancipation, and created the basis for peace with the beaten South at the end of the American Civil War.
Unfortunately, Lincoln didn’t survive to see a country completely restored and united. 
John Wilkes Booth assassinated him in Washington, D.C., weeks before the official conclusion of the Civil War.
It was hard for me to make the top 10 best presidents list, especially the top two.
Abe Lincoln was great. He was a genius in coping with individuals, and he rendered his adversary friend repeatedly. 
He was frank and always attempted to do for America what was best.

01.George Washington

top 10 best presidents

On top of our list is a humble military general known as the father of the nation as the first president, George Washington.
George Washington is ranked as the best leader USA ever had and there is a reason for that.
During the American Revolution, he functioned as commander-in-chief and then presided over the 1787 Constitutional conventions. 
With no criterion for choosing a president, it fell to the members of the Electoral College to elect the nation’s first leader.
Over two terms, Washington has created many of the traditions that the oval office still follows today.
Worried that the president’s office should not be seen as a monarch’s cabinet but as one citizen, 
Washington preferred on calling him “Mr. President” rather than “Your Excellency.”
During his presidency, the U.S. developed government spending regulations, normalized relationships with Great Britain as it’s an old foe, and set the foundations for the future capital, Washington, D.C. 
George Washington refused to accept the position country’s highest post when requested for the third term
His explanation was, The presidency is not to be a seat from which to rule, a monarchy in Washington, or a peer down on it’s country’s citizens, but a place in which the Americans chose an individual to represent them. 
The world could be very different today if other power-hungry man than Washington was our first president.

We had some amazing people who served us as presidents. 
As this is the top 10 best presidents countdown, I couldn’t include them all. 
They were people of personality and intelligence, from various political parties and from various cultures. 
I carefully selected those who changed America & World for good.
If this historical rankings of presidents strongly resonate with you share this with your friends on social media.

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